Possible damages to the brain by hypertension

Untreated hypertension can cause damages to the brain.

Hypertension is the most important risk factor for strokes. Compared with people with normal blood pressure, the risk of suffering a stroke for high blood pressure patients is increased 3-4 fold. 80% of strokes are based on vessel occlusion, 20% are based on cerebral hemorrhage. In about one third of the cases, the dangerous occlusion of a cerebral vessel occurs due to a blood clot that has broken away from a vessel wall calcification in the interior of a carotid artery or the aorta.

In particular, the cerebral neck arteries (macroangiopathy) are altered by hypertension in terms of arteriosclerosis. Occlusions or severe stenosis in sufferers of high blood pressure may also occur in the larger cerebral vessels and cause a stroke.
In the brain, impaired blood flow can also affect the small vessels as far their fine branches (microangiopathy). Chronic insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients develops. As a consequence, the performance of the brain is impaired, i.e. premature mental deterioration is observed (vascular dementia).

Consequences of hypertension