Drug therapy to lower blood pressure

If a drug therapy is also necessary to lower blood pressure, this should be done consistently and regularly. The following drugs/substance classes (anti-hypertensives) are available to treat hypertension:

ACE-inhibitors and AT-1 receptor antagonists
Preparations in these classes of drug act to widen blood vessels via several different paths. In essence, they inhibit the formation of the blood pressure-enhancing hormone angiotensin II. They achieve sustainable reductions in blood pressure and prevent damage to the end-organs. 

Diuretics (draining, diuretic agents)
Thiazides and loop diuretics (especially in patients with impaired renal function) and potassium-saving diuretics belong to these kidney-active drugs. They increase the excretion of salt and water by the kidneys and increase their effect in combination with other anti-hypertensive drugs. Over a longer period, diuretics reduce blood pressure by lowering responsiveness to vasoconstrictive stimuli. As higher doses also lead to the excretion of minerals, e.g. potassium, when taking diuretics) potassium-rich foods (e.g. bananas, dried fruit, potatoes) should be included in the diet and/or the mineral should be supplemented in the form of tablets. 

Betablockers
Beta-blockers are drugs that block the so-called ß-receptors in the body. This inhibits the effect of certain stress hormones. These stress hormones (norepinephrine, epinephrine) usually have a stimulating effect on various organs including the heart. If they are blocked, the pulse and the blood pressure decrease, as does the force of the heartbeat. The heart therefore beats somewhat slower and is relieved. 

Calcium antagonists and/or calcium channel blockers
Calcium antagonists block calcium channels in the cardiac and vascular muscle cells. They reduce the influx of calcium into the cells, and through this, lower the vascular tension and along with it, the blood pressure.

Drugs in these substance classes can be prescribed individually (monotherapy) or together (combination therapy) - taking into account possible initial or secondary disorders. If the initial therapy is not adequate, the drug or the combination can be changed until the blood pressure is effectively lowered.

Patients at times experience treatment with blood pressure drugs as uncomfortable as the lowering of blood pressure may initially make the affected person tired and exhausted. The body must first adjust and get used to lower blood pressure. The drugs should therefore be administered gradually, i.e. a low dose at the beginning, which is increased step by step. This way, the body has time to slowly adjust to it. The adjustment may take up to a month.

Therapy of hypertension