Glossary

whole glossary

Glossary A - C

Glossary D - M

Glossary N - Z

A-C

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ACE
Abbreviation for Angiotensine-Converting-Enzyme;
This enzyme enables the production of Angiotensine II. It is raised in the lung.

ACE inhibitor
ACE inhibitors are medicals that block ACE. ACE blockers reduce creation of Angiotensine II, which lowers blood pressure.

Adiposity/ Obesity
The terms overweight and adiposity are often misleadingly used as synonyms. Overweight only indicates gaining body weight without any judgment. The term body mass includes tissue, fat, bones and organs. Adiposity exclusively refers to an excess of body fat. Even the classification of adiposity (on the basis of BMI) distinguishes between overweight and adiposity.
Today, BMI is the standard tool of the medical science and is used in hospitals as well to classify adiposity.

Calculation: Body mass index BMI = body weight in kg / body height in m²

Classification of adiposity according to BMI:

Classification BMI
Underweight < 18,5
Normal weight 18,5 - 24,9
Overweight 25,0 -29,9
Adiposity level I 30,0 - 34,9
Adiposity level II 35,0 - 39,9
Adiposity level III >= 40,0
standard:format,2

Adrenalin/Nor-adrenalin
Hormones of the adrenal medulla;
They are the messenger of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible fort he elevation of blood pressure as well as progression of heartbeat activity.

Angiotensine II
Angiotensive II are hormones that play a pivotal role in the regulation of blood pressure.
Angiotensine I can keep up and/or elevate blood pressure. It is built in the blood and the tissue under the influence of ACE.

Aorta
Aorta is a blood vessel that comes from the left heart chamber.

Apnoea
Is a nightly breath disturbance that comes with breath disruptions, snoring, increased day tiredness, and possibly elevation of blood pressure as well as heart rhythm disturbances.

Arrhythmia
Is a heart rhythm disturbance that has its origins in the heart chambers.

Arterioles
Are smallest aortas that are connected to the large aortas.
Due to the ever decreasing diameter of the blood vessels they build up the blood pressure.

Arteriosclerosis
Arteriosclerosis is a chronic and progressive vascular disease.
Deposits on the septum of the vessels lead to squeezing vessels.

Atrial
The two atrials are up streamed to the heart chambers. They absorb the blood, which flows (via the large veins) back from the body and lungs to the heart.

Atrial vibrilation
Atrial vibrilation is e special kind of heart rhythm disturbance. Rapid, unordered impulses from the atrial to the heart chamber lead to an irregular heart beat. This disease can appear all of a sudden or at regular intervals.
It is one of the most common heart rhythm disturbances - especially at elderly. Roughly 9% of people aged 80+ are affected.
Reasons for occurrence can be:

  • Valvular heart disease
  • Structure of the coronary vessels causes by arteriosclerosis
  • Heart attack
  • Cardiac insufficiency
  • Hypertension
  • Myocardial arteritis
  • Hyperthyroidism

In 10 to 15% of all patients with atrial villibration there is no organic cause. The heart rhythm disturbance usually occurs for only a small period of time.

Auscultatorical gap
Sometimes when measuring blood pressure there is no Korotkow sound hearable during the deflation phase. This might be the case for patients who suffer from very elevated blood pressure or arteriosclerosis. When measuring with a stethoscope the physician/pharmacist can easily hear/spot the auscultatoric gap.

Auscultatoric measurement devices
Here, stethoscopes and quicksilver sphygmomanometers are pooled in one category. Both have in common that the blood pressure values (systole and diastole) are made hearable via a stethoscope - thereby being identified acoustically / manually.

Blood pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure in the inside of the blood vessels (aorta and arteries).
It is responsible for pushing the blood through the blood vessels. The systolic blood pressure is highest at the moment where the heart muscle is contracting. The diastolic blood pressure is lower and occurs at the moment where the heart muscle flags.

Bypass operation
The aim of a bypass operation is by-passing the blood flow by bridging a blocked artery either with a body blood vessel or artery or using an artificial synthetic tube.

Capillary (-net)
Capillaries are smallest blood vessels that connect arteries and veins.
They are responsible for the metabolism of the tissue by supplying nutrients coming from the arterial blood and absorbing waste into the venous blood.

Cardiac insufficiency
Occurs when the heart is not able to circulate the needed blood.

Cholesterol
Cholesterol is an essential, fat-like substance that is responsible for building the cell walls. It plays also an important in role in connection with hormones and vitamin D.

Contraction
E.g. the contraction of the myocardial muscle in order to pump fresh, oxygen-enriched blood into the blood circulation.

D-M

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Diastole
The phase of the atony of the heart chamber is called diastole.

Duplex sonography
Is an ultrasonic testing where the examined vessels, the flow speed and direction of the blood is made visible on a screen.

Essential hypertension
In more than 80% of all diagnosed hypertension cases an organic cause can not be diagnosed. In those cases a primary or essential hypertension is in place. Although the causes of this kind of hypertension are not yet identified scientifically experts assume that overweight, stress and too little exercise are the elicitors.

Extra systoles
Extra-beats of the heart; they can be perceived as 'heart-stumbling'

Fuzzy Logic
Fuzzy logic is used as an intelligent software algorithm that evaluates data obtained from the measurement device in order to translate the pulse signals into meaningful and accurate readings that finally are shown in the display.

HDL
Abbreviation for High Density Lipoproteins (fat protein connection);
HDL cholesterine has a positive influence on the health.

Heart attack
Is the die-off of myocardial tissue caused by lack of blood supply.
It occurs when a coronary vessel is occluded. Often, the reason is a blood clot which engrafts on existing arteriesclerotic constricted vessels.

Heart chamber
Two of the four cavities of the heart are called heart chambers. They collect blood during the diastolic phase, than contract themselves to pump the blood into the body. The right-sided heart chamber pumps the blood into the small blood circulation and the left-sided heart chamber pumps the blood into the large blood circulation.

Heart rhythm disturbance
Is the disruption of the regular heart beat.
It can be distinguished between the extra-systole and a too fast/ too slow, regular/irregular pulse beat.
Heart rhythm disturbances can be both, harmless or harmful.

Heart valve
They assign the direction of the blood flow to the heart. They function as a kind of 'admission valve' between atrial and the heart chambers and as an exhaust valve between the two heart chambers and the aortas.

Hypertension
Steady elevation of the blood pressure

Hypertension crisis
Is the sudden elevation of the blood pressure in combination with manifold and typical disturbances such as uneasiness, respiratory depression, pressure in the chest, heart rhythm disturbances, dizziness or feeling of sickness.

Hypotension
Is defined as the slump of the blood pressure to values below 105/60mm Hg.
Hypotension can be caused by diminished activity of the heart or by a too low antagonism of the vessels. The latter causes problems when the patient is getting up to quick. Even athletes can suffer from hypotension although too often no specific disorders occur.
In other cases, the affected person complaints about dizziness, tiredness, feeling of adynamia, affection to blackouts, unconsciousness, paleness or a pulse that can be hardly felt.

Insufficiency
Is the inefficiency or limited functioning of organs.

Kidney-caused hypertension
Secondary form of hypertension that occurs due to an indisposition of the kidney tissue or constricted kidney arteries (renal artery stenosis)

Korotkow
Nikolai S. Korotkow - Russian doctor (1874 - 1937)
The 'Korotkow sound' appears at the auscultatoric measurement method when the cuff is deflating. As soon as the sound is hearable the systolic blood pressure value is obtained. When the sound disappears the diastolic value is obtained.

Metabolic syndrome
The Metabolic syndrome summarizes the collective appearance of overweight, hypertension, elevated blood-fat values, insulin resistance, or diabetes mellitus.

Miscuffing
Is the use of an inappropriate cuff size.
The cuff is either too large (overcuffing) or too small (undercuffing). Both lead to misleading readings.

mm Hg

  • measurement unit for blood pressure measurement
  • stands for millimeter quicksilver
  • accrue historically as the blood pressure was measured using quicksilver measurement devices

N-Z

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Observer bias
Is the main source of errors at the manual (auscultatoric) blood pressure measurement.
It is often caused by incorrect reading-off of the measurement results (readings are recorded chronologically shifted - Korotkow sound vs. displayed values).

Oscillation
Is the general description of periodically repeating scenes / procedures.

Oscillometric measurement devices
Using an inflatable rubber cuff, the artery in the upper arm or at the wrist is compressed. While the air is released slowly from the cuff, the blood begins to flow through the artery again. The devices register the fluctuations in the walls of the artery, which are produced as the blood starts to flow through it. These fluctuations, also called oscillations, first become stronger, then diminish and cease completely when the blood is again flowing normally through the blood vessels. From the typical graph of the oscillations, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure is calculated using a formula, the algorithm.

Oscillometric measurement method
Oscillometric measurement devices measure the blood pressure by knuckling the artery with the cuff. Instead of recording the pulse signals acoustically the oscillations of the artery are being gathered and evaluated. Those oscillations of the artery wall occur when the artery is knuckled by the cuff and the blood starts circulating after the cuff deflates. The oscillations get stronger the more the cuff deflates and stop when the cuff is fully deflated and the blood flows at the regular speed through the artery/blood vessels.
The oscillations have a very typical curve progression. Based on this curve and a mathematical formula, an algorithm, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure is being calculated and then visualized on the display.

Overcuffing
If the cuff is too large to fit the upper arm, experts speak of 'over-cuffing'. Over-cuffing underestimates the real blood pressure values so that the deviation can be as large as 10-30mm Hg. This means that the blood pressure values that are shown on the display are lower than the real blood pressure actually is.

Pulse synchronization
A full-automatic blood pressure monitor needs a certain number of pulse signals in order to be able to calculate the blood pressure. The higher this number the more accurate are the results.
At a constant rate of deflation (the speed of the deflation of the cuff, measured in mm Hg/sec - which is technically forced) the device obtains less pulse signals at a slow low pulse of the user and obtains more pulse signals when the user has a high pulse.
The pulse synchronization matches the rate of deflation with the individual pulse frequency of the user. A high pulse rate would result in a quicker deflation rate while a low pulse rate would result in a slower deflation rate.
Therefore, individual pulse synchronization guarantees 'fastest measurements possible while improving measurement accuracy'.

Receptors
Are parts of the wall of cells that can absorb messengers or drugs.
Blocking agents can log-on to the receptors, thereby preventing effectiveness of messengers or drugs.

Secondary hypertension
The secondary hypertension can be caused by certain drugs such as hormone drugs (anti-baby pill, corticoids and others). Certain kidney disorders, metabolism or vascular diseases, arteriosclerosis and other rare disease can also cause this kind of hypertension.

Self-determined inflation pressure
In order to obtain reliable measurement results, Tensoval inflates the pressure to a value of 30mm Hg above the systolic pressure, which in the first step is usually the value 190mm Hg. In case this pressure is not sufficient for determining the patients' blood pressure Tensoval further inflates the cuff by 30mm Hg per session.
Especially at hypotensive blood pressure values the inflation can be interrupted by pushing the START/STOP button shortly after the start of the measuring process until the desired inflation pressure is reached. A first inflation of below 190mm Hg can not be prevented.

Stroke
Is the die-off of brain cells caused by a disruption of the blood circulation or bleeding in the brain cells (cerebral hemorrhage).
The reason can be a blocked-up or burst brain artery. Hypertension is one of the main causes of strokes.

Systole
Phase where the heart chambers contract and pump the blood into the blood circular flow.

Undercuffing
The most frequent mistake made when choosing a cuff, especially sincere when the user suffers from adiposity, is the so-called 'under-cuffing'. Here, the cuff is too small in relation to the upper arm circumference. This leads to overestimated blood pressure values, meaning that the measured values are up to 30mm Hg too high in comparison to the 'real' blood pressure.

Vegetative nervous system
Is an autonomous, independent from someones will, working nervous system, consisting of the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, and a complex guidance system.

Veins
Vessels that transport blood back from the body parts to the heart. The largest vessels are the upper and lower cava. They flow directly into the right atrial.

White coat effect
The white coat effect refers to the fact that the measurement results of some patients are higher when being obtained by a physician in a hospital or at the doctors' office. One major reason is that those patients are generally nervous or excited when being at the doctors' office, which then leads to higher measurement results than would have been obtained from the self measurement for example at home.